2009年6月21日 星期日

Jin Ho Coins (景和錢)

Jin Ho Coins(Chinese;景和). Just like other Coins of Chinese South & North Dynasties, Jin Ho Coins was very light and thin. The Jin Ho reign title only implement three months. Hense the Coins were issued in a small amount.
The Jin Ho Coin at attached pictures were full with green mold. The words of Jin Ho were kept very clear and there is additional "-" on the Chinse word of "Ho" . That is major distinguishing feature of Jin Ho Coins.

Jin Ho Coins(Chinese;景和). 就像其他南北朝錢幣一樣,景和錢相當輕且薄. 景和錢只發行3個月即停鑄,因此發行數量並不多. 上圖之景和錢,錢面佈滿綠銹,字體也保留相當清晰可見. 另外景和錢之特色是其和字中多一橫,請泉友細細品味.

Tai Huo Liu Zhu(太貨六銖)

Tai Huo Liu Zhu(太貨六銖;see picture 1),Minted in A.D. 579 in the period of Emperor Xuan (A.D.569~583). It circulted alongside the Wu Zhu, and the beginning it had the same value as 10 Wu Zhu.

By the way, there is reverse with moon veins and "Liu Zhu" without Tai Huo two words(we call it "waive words" coins) have been found(please see the attached picture 3~4). Per "Chinese Ancient Coins Album-A" written by Mr. Hua-Guang Pu and Essays of Mr. Luo Bozhuo, only a few specimens of above coins are reported to be in existence.

Tai Huo Liu Zhu(太貨六銖),南北朝陳宣帝十一年,西元579年始鑄太貨六銖,該錢幣初行時一當五銖錢十枚. 另外太貨六銖有發現背"月紋"及錢文僅有"六銖",而無"太貨"的省文錢,依據華光譜著之中國古錢大集甲本以及羅伯昭先生錢幣文集所載,此兩種版式錢幣均少見.

2009年5月10日 星期日

Tian Ming Tong Bao (天命通寶)

Tian Ming Tong Bao (天命通寶)
By Learner
May 10,2009

In the early stage, Manchu people is living in east-north of China and living in a nomadic lifestyle. Till Nurhachi, he fights with other race and united the Manchu people finally and built the Manchu state outside the Shanhaiguan Pass in Year 1616. His resign was titled as Tian Ming (it means heavenly mandate) and was first Emperor of Qing Dynasty. In the Tian Ming period (1616~1627), Nurhachi has issue Tian Ming Tong Bao in Chinese (Please see the picture 1&2) and old-style Manchu characters (3&4) at the same time. Tian Ming Tong Bao with Manchu characters was read from left-right to top-bottom: “Abkai fulingga han jiha”. In the picture 5, I also show the Manchu characters of Tian Ming Tong Bao with duplicate words. Such kind of coins really are special and interesting. Don’t you think so?


XIAN FENG TONG BAO—the coin issued by the ninth Emperor of Qing Dynasty (咸豐通寶)
By Learner
May 10, 2009

The ninth Emperor reign was from 1850 to 1861 titled as Xian Feng. In year 1852, the Taiping armies launched the northern expedition and approached to Beijing. The Qing regime was tottering under the domestic troubles and the foreign invasion. At that time, he appointed the Minister Su Shun(Chinese;肅順) and other courtiers to rescue the finance. Meanwhile, he had to rely on Zeng Guofan (chinese;曾國藩) and other landlord armed forces to put down the Taiping rebels. In year 1858, UK and France launched the Second Opium War and captured Guangzhou. In year 1859, the Da Gu Battery near Tianjin was been take over. After the Anglo-French expedition attacked Beijing in 1860 (10th year), he had to sign a few unequal treaties with Russia, USA, UK and France etc. He died of an illness in his summer capital at Re-he in 1861 at the age of only 30. Form above, it making me feel sad that weak country will be bullied by stronger without any reason. I think is just a real world.
XIAN FENG TONG BAO was issued by this period (1831~1861). Due to Tai Ping Tian Guo (the Tai-ping Rebellion) broke out in the early stage of Xian Feng, the Qing government met a serious difficulty on finance and economy, and had to issue high-value coins to make up the expenditure. It causing there are various styles and values of coins by using different metals include copper, iron and lead made the coinage chaotic. Due to this background, the coins collection for the Xian Feng is most interesting of the Qing coins.

Shun Zhi Tong Bao (順治通寶)

Shun Zhi Tong Bao-- issued by the third Emperor of Qing Dynasty (順治通寶)
By Learner
May 10, 2009

Let’s talk about the Emperor Shun Zhi first. Shun Zhi was the ninth son of Emperor Abahai (Huang Tai Ji). Shun Zhi was his reign title from 1643 to 1661. At his age of six, he ascended the throne. In the meantime, he decided to enter the Shanhaignan Pass and defeated the peasant anti-Ming uprising Li Tzu-cheng and moved the capital to Beijing. After then, the Qing Dynasty government sent armies to attack the Southern Ming royal pretender, and issued the decrees of the enclosure and the Haircut. In the 7th year of Shun Zhi (1650), he concentrate his effort in the government officials and carried out the policy of reclaiming waste land. In addition, he continuously sent his armies to the Southwest China to put down the anti-Qing rebels. Unfortunately, he died of an illness in the 18th year of his reign (1661). At that time, he was only 24 years.
SHUN ZHI TONG BAO is the coin issued by Emperor Shi Zu. There are 5 series that description as following:The first is with a plain reverse or a star legend like ancient coins.(Please see the picture 1)The second is with some single words which show the names of more than 20 mints.The third is added the legend Yi Li (i.e. 0.1% of a tael), indicating the value in silver to the left, and on the right side is the name of the mint(totally)17 mints).The fourth was issued from the mints attached to the Board of Revenue and the Board of Works at Peking with Manchu characters.Bao Quan and Bao Yuan respectively.The fifth is the Coins have the name of the mint on the reverse in Chinese to the right, and a Manchu letter to the left.(Please see the picture 2 ~ 4)

2009年5月9日 星期六

Da Chi Wu Zhi (Chinese; 大吉五銖)

Da Chi Wu Zhu(Chinese;大吉五銖)
By Learner
May 9, 2009

Da Chi Wu Zhu(Chinese;大吉五銖) were private minted in the period of Chinese Southern and Northern Dynasties. Per "Chinese Ancient Coins Diagram" written by Mr. Fu-Po Din, only a mold of Da Chi Wu Zhu was reported to be found in Year 1935(please reference attached picture 3).Mr. Din has state that he was not sure if real "Da Chi Wu Zhu" were existence or not. Fortunately, the real "Da Chi Wu Chu" has been founded finally(Please see the attached picture 1 and 2).
大吉五銖為南北朝私鑄錢,根據丁福寶先生所著之"歷代古錢圖說",大吉五銖於民國24年僅有發現其錢範,至於是否有鑄錢則不得而知. 很幸運的,大吉五銖錢幣實體有被發現(請參見圖1及圖2)

Other Version of Sichuan Rupee(其他版式之四川盧比)

Low silver percentage; hand hammer; For temple using purpose; circulate at west China(陝甘一帶)

For temple using purpose; 里塘長青(彌勒)春科(法輪)爾寺;黃教大寺; with Lamasery stamp.

Sichuan Rupee(四川盧比)

Sichuan Rupee
By Learner
May 9, 2009

Rupee is the name of India’s silver coin. The origin of the word "rupee" is found in the Sanskrit word that means of silver coins. India coinage is extreme complicate for a long period. Till the Year 1835 British East India Company (BEIC, EHIC) issued British Queen Head rupee, India’s coinage has united under a standard form finally (Please see the attached picture 3&4 for reference).
After British taking over of India, it still plots to invade Tibet ceaseless. One of method is to import large amount of Rupee by through Nepal and Bhutan in order to control the Economic in this area. As the result Rupee has been become the major currency in Tibet and then expend the region to Sichuan and Yunnan gradually.
Under this situation, in order to resist rupee, Qing Dynasty government approve to mint Sichuan Rupee that imitate British East India Company Rupee with the same design and circulated in Sichuan and Yunnan ( Queens head change to Emperor Guang Xu; Reverse English Rupee change to Sichuan minted in Chinese etc.; please see the picture 1&2 to compare with picture 3&4 ). In addition, some Sichuan Rupee has issued by some temples but the silver percentage is low.
As Sichuan Rupee has various versions exist, it is a good target for collectors to collect it and will have a lot of surprise and fun.

2009年5月3日 星期日

Chinese Soviet Portrait Coins(中國蘇維埃人像幣)

Chinese Soviet Portrait Coins
By Learner(學習者)
Feb. 10, 2009

In around Year 1928, the China land war period, the Chinese Communist lead workers and peasants adopting the policy to encircle and to seize the cities by means of armed revolutionary rural districts. This policy was implemented along two lines; the development of trained, disciplined Red armies able to withstand the attacks of the KMT troops, and the organization of political power in whatever areas could be brought under Communist control, in the form of soviets, following the model of the Russian Revolution.
As Red army grew in size and took over several areas (we call Soviet Area), finally, on November 7, 1931, the anniversary of the 1917 Russian Bolshevik Revolution, with the help of the Soviet Union, a National Soviet People's Delegates Conference took place in Ruijin (瑞金), Jiangxi province, which was selected as the national capital. "Chinese Soviet Republic" (CSR; Chinese: "中華蘇維埃共和國") was born, even though the majority of China was still under the control of the nationalist Government of the Republic of China.
The Soviet Areas were entirely autonomous. The Communists maintained their own police and bureaucracy. In order to strengthen CSR’s political power, development Soviet Areas economic and supporting revolution war, CSR has established and issues its own banknotes, as well as their own coins. The Chinese Soviet Portrait Silver Coins were just issued at this period. Some people used to call it “ Lenin Dollar”.
According “Illustrated Catalogue of Chinese Gold & Silver Coins—Ching and Republican issues” written by Mr. Lin Gwo Ming, there are four kind of Chinese Soviet Portrait Coins have been found:
First one (please see the picture 1), it’s distinguishing feature is bear a bust of Lenin profile portrait within two circles. Above is the inscription, Chung-kuo Su-wei-ai Tsao, literally, “Chinese Soviet Republic Issue”. Below Lenin is suppose printed the date in Chinese, I-chiu-san-i Nien,”1931 year.” due to such coin only be found two pieces and two of them are un-clearly show the date. On the reverse, it is circled by wreath. At the top is a flower and center bears the value, I-yuan (one), within Chinese Communist symbols-sickle & hammer.
Second one, it bears a bust of Lenin facing right without any circle. Above is the inscription, Chung-kuo Su-wei-ai Kon-he-kow Tsao, literally, “Chinese Soviet Republic Issue”. On the reverse, its center bears the value, I-yuan (one), within Chinese Communist symbols-sickle & hammer. Also, its above is the inscription, Chung-kuo Su-wei-ai Tsao, literally, “Chinese Soviet Republic Issue” that is most distinguishing feature from other Chinese Soviet Portrait Coins.
Third one (please see the picture 2), it bears a bust of Lenin facing right without any circle. Above is the inscription, Chung-kuo Su-wei-ai Kon-he-kow Tsao, literally, “Chinese Soviet Republic Issue”. On the reverse, same as first one, it is circled by wreath. At the top is five star and center bears the value, I-yuan (one), within Chinese Communist symbols-sickle & hammer.
Last one (please see the picture 3), it bears a bust of Lenin facing right within a circle. Above is the inscription, Chung-kuo Su-wei-ai Kon-he-kow Kow Be, literally, “Chinese Soviet Republic Coin”. Below Lenin is printed the date in Chinese, I-chiu-san-i Nien,”1931 year”. On the reverse, same as first one and third one, it is circled by wreath. At the top is five star and center bears the value, I-yuan (one), within Chinese Communist symbols-sickle & hammer.
As lack of resource at Soviet Areas, the Chinese Soviet Portrait Silver Coins were made by manual with using old silver extract from silverware and cartridge shell. In addition, it is punished by stone with variance power, the picture of silver face usually un-clearly and has black oxidation material on face of silver coins. The whole Chinese Soviet Portrait Silver Coins were full of punished sign and the coins were heavy and rich of history sad story. Hold it on hand and watch it, there is un-know feeling and exciting arising from my deep heart. Mao and people in Soviet Areas work hard for their dreams are showing in front of my eyes. It really is very special Silver Coins.
Per Beijing ChengXuan Auctions Co., Ltd record, the Chinese Soviet Portrait Silver Coins have been issued in a small amount and major issue for Red Army. As the army has high floating rate and the First Front Army's Long March began in October 1934, under the hard environment of war period, the remaining of such kind of silver coins are very rare.

Reference: "THE MONEY OF COMMUNIST CHINA (1927 – 1949) PART I" by John E. Sandrock

Qing Dynasty Coinage(清朝錢幣)

Qing Dynasty Coinage

There were 12 rulers of Qing Dynasty. From the Emperor Nurhachi (努爾哈次) built the Manchu state (which located at North East of China) titled as “Tian Ming” outside the Shanhaiguan Pass(山海關) in Year 1616 to the last Emperor Xuan Tong abdicated in Year 1911. The Qing Dynasty issued coins all long in every reign with varied coinages.

In the initial period before the Shun Zhi reign (the third ruler of Qing Dynasty), the coins coinage were imitated the styles of the former dynasty Ming. After Shun Zhi Emperor entered the Shanhaiguan in 1644, the coin style for one dollar had five versions: the first was with a blank reverse; the second was with a Chinese character on the reverse which showed the name of the mint or the place where the coin was made; the third was made in 1653 (the 10th year of Shun Zhi) with legend “Yi Li” indicating the value in silver; the fourth was issued by Bao Chuan and Bao Yuan mint in 1657(14th year) with the Manchu characters of Bao Chuan and Bao Yuan; the last was made in 1660(17th year) with both Chinese and Manchu characters.

The Emperor Kang Xi (the fourth ruler of Qing Dynasty) had the great achievement in Military activity and people’s livelihood, the Dynasty foundation was laid in this reign for the development of the latter reigns. There are two styles of Kang Xi coins issued by total 21 mints. The coins made by both Bao Chuan and Bao Yuan mint were only with the Manchu characters on the reverse. The coins minted by local mints all had both Manchu and Chinese characters indicating the name of the mint.

In the Uen Zheng reign (the fifth ruler of Qing Dynasty), the coins were made following the late reign with Manchu characters only on the reverse showing the name of the mint and the quantity of Uen Zheng coins was obviously less than that of the former reigns.

Qian Long Emperor (the sixth ruler of Qing Dynasty) issued a huge amount of coins during his reign as long as sixty years with a standard style that there are Manchu characters only on the reverse of a coin indicating the name of its mint. This period Qian Long achieving greatest prosperity of Qing Dynasty, there were 24 mints had issued coins but the quality was gradually reduced in the latter stage.

In Jia Qing period (the seventh ruler of Qing Dynasty), the politics of Qing regime became rotten gradually and the economy was on the decline although the Emperor had done vigorous efforts. So the issuance of coins was just for supporting the routine demand of currency and the quality of the coins was continuously reduced.

Coming to the Dao Guang reign (the eight ruler of Qing Dynasty), the European countries and United State exported a huge amount of opium to China so as to the Qing Dynasty was faced with a financial crisis due to the out flow of a huge amount of money. After the Opium War, the China became a semi-colonial and semi-feudal country.

In early Xian Feng period (the ninth ruler of Qing Dynasty), the Taiping Tianguo rebellion and the Qing Dynasty regime was challenged under the domestic and the foreign troubles. Under this situation, forcing Qing Dynasty had to issue a lot of big-value coins to make up the serious deficit. The various styles of coins by using different metals include copper, iron and lead made the coinage chaotic. In addition, the instructions for the coinage from the government were often changed suddenly within this 10 years. The quantity and the quality of coins were reduced again. The coins circulated in markets were almost not value as it state value on the coins, so as to the people's complaints could be heard everywhere.

In the Tong Zhi period (the tenth ruler of Qing Dynasty), the actual ruler empress Che Xi (the wife of Emperor Xian Feng) monopolized the power and execution the new policy that imitate west country policy. Besides the issuance of Value-ten coins, the quantity and the quality of the one dollar coins were greatly reduced again and many illegal coins with small sizes were circulated together with the legal coins.

In Guang Xu period (the eleventh ruler of Qing Dynasty), the scripts on the coins were varied. This formed the major characteristic of the coinage in the latter stage of Qing Dynasty. Meanwhile in pace with the fast growth of trade with foreign countries, the machine-made silver and copper coins with exquisite patterns appeared. The traditional coins with a square hole were gradually withdrawn from the field of circulation along with the change of the coinage,

In Xuan Tong (the last ruler of Qing Dynasty) only a few old style coins were made in order to maintain the livelihood of the workers in the mint. At that time, the machine-made copper coins completely replaced the traditional coins. The round coin with a square hole circulated for more than 2000 years finally accomplished its historical mission.

To summarize, due to Qing Dynasty special history background, the whole Qing Dynasty coinage no matter what the quantity and the styles of the coins were much more than that of the former Chinese Dynasties. Indeed, it making coin collectors of Qing Dynasty were easy to addict in it. Qing Dynasty coins really were the coin collection paradise that will give collectors full of surprise and emotion experience. Come to joint us and I am sure you will enjoy it!

Learner 2009.05.02